CORNOVA − časopis ČSVOS
Revue české společnosti pro výzkum 18. století
Cornova (ISSN 1804-6983) je recenzovaný odborný časopis vydávaný dvakrát ročně Českou společností pro výzkum osmnáctého století (členem International Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies ).
Cornova byl zaražen do seznamu recenzovaných neimpaktovaných periodik vydávaných v České republice platný pro rok 2015 publikovaném RVVI.
Od svého založení v roce 2011 představuje Cornova mezinárodní odborný časopis se zaměřením na výzkum 18. století s důrazem na střední Evropu v širším kontextu. Cílem časopisu je uvádět metodicky propracované studie založené na původním výzkumu a dotýkající se aktuálních otázek bádání 18. století a podporovat jejich teoretickou reflexi v středoevropském kontextu
Cornova (ISSN 1804-6983) is a peer-reviewed academic journal published two times a year by the Czech Society for Eighteenth Century Studies (a member of the International Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies ).
Cornova is a peer-reviewed periodical accredited by the Czech Research, Development and Innovation Council (RVVI) for 2015.
Founded in 2011, Cornova is an interdisciplinary academic journal focusing on research into the history of the Eighteenth century. Its aim is to present methodically deliberated papers, which, on a basis of original research, aspire to adress actual issues of Eighteenth Century studies and to stimulate their theoretical reflection in a Central European context.
Výkonný redaktor / copy editor:
ThDr. Josef Táborský, ThD. (nakl. Karolinum, Praha)
Redakční rada / editorial board
Dr. Michael Wögerbauer (Ústav pro českou literaturu AV ČR, v. v. i. - předseda)
Mgr. Marc Niubó, PhD. (FF UK Praha - zástupce předsedy)
Mgr. Veronika Čapská, PhD. (Filozoficko-přírodovědecká fakulta, Slezská univerzita v Opavě + Univerzita Palackého Olomouc)
Prof. Marie-Elizabeth Ducreux (EHESS-MSH Paris)
Mgr. Josef Fulka, PhD. (Filozofický ústav AVČR v. v. i. + FHS UK)
PhDr. Martina Grečenková, PhD. (Historický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i. + FHS UK)
Prof. Dr. Christine Haug (Universität München)
PhDr. Jiří Hrbek, PhD. (FF UK Praha)
PhDr. Eva Kowalska, DrSc. (Historický ústav Slovenskej akadémie vied, Bratislava)
Mgr. Jiří Kubeš, PhD. (KHV Univerzita Pardubice)
Mgr. Hedvika Kuchařová, PhD. (Strahovský klášter, Praha)
Prof. Christine Lebeau (Université Paris I)
Dr. Claire Madl (CEFRES Praha)
Mgr. Tomáš Malý, PhD. (FF MU Brno)
Doc. PhDr. Miroslav Novotný, PhD. (FF JCU České Budějovice)
PhDr. Taťána Petrasová, PhD. (Ústav dějin umění AV ČR, v. v. i., Praha)
Doc. PhDr. Marie Ryantová, PhD. (FF JCU České Budějovice)
Mgr. Václav Smyčka, PhD. (ÚČL AV ČR, v.v.i., Praha)
ThDr. Rudolf Svoboda, ThD. (ThF JCU České Budějovice)
Doc. Daniela Tinková, PhD. (FF UK Praha)
Prof. PhDr. Dušan Uhlíř, CSc. (Filozoficko-přírodovědecká fakulta, Slezská univerzita v Opavě)
PhDr. Jan Zdichynec, PhD. (Ústav českých dějin FF UK Praha)
Urban Security Versus Social Privileges: the Impossible “Enlightened” Reform of Policing in Eighteenth-Century Brussels
▨ Abstract: During the medieval and early modern eras, most of the European urban authorities intended to rule their cities for the « common good », together with respecting the social hierarchy and privileged status. In the 18th century, however, many voices raised for improving the urban policing and reforming old regulations. Most of police officers claimed for equality of every inhabitant with regards to local police ordinances and petty police courts. But even if the urban rules agreed with their arguments for a more efficient policing, they could not prescribe an equality that would overthrow the Ancien Régime’s social order. Brussels in the 18th century is a good example of this contradiction. It was there impossible to reform the policing for the foreigners nor to create a professional night-watch, because of the strong reluctance of the city aldermen to abandon social privileges which were seen as fundamental freedoms of the country.
“Sine respectu personarum”? The Creation of a New Citizen by Policing the Population. Habsburg Monarchy, 1750–1820
▨ Abstract: The declared aim of enlightened administrative reforms was to provide security and aid the whole population, i.e., all social classes. Executive powers of the newly introduced police institutions covered – and defined – the whole public sphere and measures such as census or obligation to have a passport applied, at least in theory, to persons from all walks of life. This article examines how and to what extent were these ambitions applied in practice and whether these measures had an equalising effect on the society. The author concludes that unequal, in this case preferential, administrative treatment of especially the aristocracy was still widespread at the beginning of the nineteenth century. On the one hand, persons of a higher social status – who often held public offices – were supposed to embody the new civil virtues and set an example. On the other hand, however, it was feared that any public punishment or police treatment of such persons would undermine public authority and social order in general.
“A Pinch of Equality”: The Cultural Technique of Numbering in the Late 18th Century
▨ Abstract: The 18th century sees the triumph of a cultural technique so self-evident to us that we hardly think that it might have a history at all: numbering. This technique assigns a number to an object or a subject – whether a house, a page in a book, a regiment, a tone pitch, a painting, a horse-drawn carriage or a policeman – in order to positively identify this object or subject. The article presents a hitherto nearly undiscovered research field by clarifying some of the basic terminology and draws on examples from all over Europe, focussing on the numbering of – mostly vagrant – people on one side, on spaces such as houses, rooms or even hospital beds on the other side. At the end some of the research questions to be asked about this topic in the future are presented.
Otázka sebevraždy v teologických a morálněfilosofických textech 18. století: příklad habsburské monarchie
The Question of Suicide in the 18th-Century Theology and Moral Philosophy: the Example of Habsburg Monarchy
▨ Abstract: Suicide in the Habsburg monarchy in the Early Modern Age has hitherto received almost no attention. This text considers attitudes to suicide in the context of questions of sin, conscience and individualization. It traces the changing perceptions of the meaning of these phenomena through theological and moral-philosophical texts, and does so on four levels: (1) suicide as a theme (or non- theme) in 17th and 18th century theology and homiletics; (2) suicide in the reformist theology of the late 18th century; (3) the question of penance; (4) the “good death” and individual responsibility for the salvation of the soul. The author shows that in the last three decades of the 18th century, when more notice began to be paid to the phenomenon of suicide, discourse on the subject assumed a more psychological tone, with theologians and philosophers increasingly drawing attention to the harm done by certain religious and meditative techniques which in their view overexcited the imagination and could result in melancholy and despair. This shift might well be called the secularization of the discourse on suicide.
Pražské Příběhy sebevrahů a konstituování moderní subjektivity
The Prague Suicide Stories and the Constitution of Modern Subjectivity
▨ Abstract: The paper deals with the stories representing the suicide of Prague (German writing) authors, Christian Heinrich Spieß, Johann Friedrich Ernst Albrecht and Reactions to the Wertheriads, which document the divergent development of cutures of subjectivity (Reckwitz) in Central Europe in the age of Enlightenment. The first part of the paper reconstructs the influence of the radical preromantism and Sturm und Drang, namely The Sorrows of Young Werther in the Bohemian Lands. Next, It compares the Stories written by Spieß and Albrecht with Werther as a paradigmatic text and its model of Subjectivity. It focuses to the Story Die neue Sapfo written by Spieß in 1779, which documents the genesis of his later stories and the development of the conception of the role of the subject.
Mrtvoly a ohledači. Případ faráře Hayneho a vyšetřování sebevražd na Litoměřicku v 1. polovině 19. století
The Case of Pastor Hayne and Suicide Investigation in the District of Litoměřice (Leitmeritz) in the First Half of the 19th Century
▨ Abstract: In the Habsburg lands at the turn of the 19th century (as a consequence of Enlightenment critique of the legal, social and medical status quo), a change occurred in attitudes to voluntary death. This “new discourse” permeated all state-controlled institutions, being particularly evident in the transformation of teaching practice at medical schools and the introduction of new measures concerning self-willed death. This paper considers the reception of newly-introduced reforms – especially in law and medicine – in the Litoměřice region, and the impact of these changes on the way a suicide’s body was treated and where it was laid to rest. It addresses the question of how much and in what way official and medical investigations of suicides changed, which institutions were involved in such investigations, and how information was exchanged between the various judicial authorities. As a result of ever- closer collaboration between state institutions on the one hand and medical practitioners on the other, suicide in the Litoměřice region in the first half of the 19th century was, de facto, gradually decriminalized.
Osobnost a vláda Marie Terezie v dílech českých historiků (do roku 1939)
The Personality and Government of Maria Theresa in the Writings of Czech Historians (pre-1939)
▨ Abstract: This study traces the changing portrayals of Maria Theresa in the writings of the most important Czech historians (F. M. Pelcl, W. W. Tomek, J. Kalousek, B. Rieger, J. Svátek, J. Pekař and J. Prokeš) up until the end of the First Republic. It also considers the works of popular chroniclers, the French historian E. Denis, and school textbooks. The author shows that from the end of the 18th century to the 1930s Czech historiography presented an image of Maria Theresa as an exceptionally capable ruler whose wide-ranging reforms brought considerable progress in many different spheres of life both in Bohemia and the monarchy as a whole. From the outset, however, there was also criticism of various aspects of her policies that were perceived as inimical to the Czech nation. First there was Germanization, especially in the education system; then, from the 1860s, the centralizing tendency of administrative reforms that threatened the (albeit limited) autonomy of the Czech state and opened the door to dualism. This criticism was especially abrasive in the works of J. Kalousek, B. Rieger and J. Svátek. Some even pointed to an actively hostile attitude on the part of the empress towards the Czech Lands. As the proliferation of factual evidence consolidated the positive image of the great monarch, critical assessments became more objective, though they never disappeared altogether. It is worth noting that, with few exceptions, the positive importance of absolutist enlightenment reforms for the emergence of the modern Czech nation- state was often overlooked.
„Es ist nicht leichters, als diese Difficultät zu heben...“ Tereziánské správní reformy, centralizace monarchie a pojetí české státnosti na příkladu výkonu nobilitační agendy jako výseku majestátních práv české koruny
“Es ist nicht leichters, als diese Difficultät zu heben...” Theresian Administrative Reforms, Centralisation of the Monarchy and the Approach to Bohemian Statehood on the Example of Ennoblements as a Part of the Sovereign Rights of the Bohemian Crown
▨ Abstract: This study examines the possibilities and limitations of centralizing reforms within the western part of the Habsburg monarchy, as illustrated by the problematic issue of ennoblement in the Czech lands. The administrative reforms of 1749 resulted in the administrative union of both state entities in a single whole of (all) so-called Hereditary Lands. They also led to the closure of separate offices at court representing the Czech and Austrian lands, replacing them with a single Directorium in publicis et cameralibus, which took over the ennoblement programme hitherto operated by those two offices. Despite the apparently centralizing tendency of the reforms, this did not extend to any unification of entitlements to ennoblement, which continued to be based on particular ranks and titles specific to either the Kingdom of Bohemia or the Archduchy of Austria. It was not until 1752 that, on the urging of Maria Theresa herself, a unified, legally binding system for dispensing preferment and privilege, including a unified scale of aristocratic titles for all the Hereditary Lands, was introduced. In practice, ennoblement rights in the two state entities remained differentiated as to specific titles up until the early 19th century, when the two systems were superseded by a new Austrian Imperial ranking. Thus one of the last relics of the conception of the Czech Crown Lands as an autonomous historical entity finally ceased to exist.
Každodennost reformního procesu (na příkladu Moravy)
Everyday Life of the Reform Process (on the Example of Moravia)
▨ Abstract: This paper examines the personal interventions of the empress in the reform process. Maria Theresa intervened in this process in various ways. First of all, she was able to supervise it directly through her signing of official documents, to which she would add instructions for their enactment to the court authorities or to particular countries of her realm. She also tried to make sure that competent individuals were appointed to the administrative apparatus responsible for implementing and supervising the reforms, irrespective of their social estate – though in this she was only partly successful. In addition, she kept her civil servants in check by requiring them to file regular reports. Finally, by calling for fiscal economies she had a hand in controlling public expenditure.
Mezi dvěma decenálními recesy. K daňové politice Marie Terezie v Čechách v letech 1748–1775
Between Two Ten-Year Compacts: Maria Theresa’s Taxation Policy in Bohemia, 1748–1775
▨ Abstract: This study examines the taxation policy of Maria Theresa as evidenced by the situation in Bohemia. A fundamental measure that opened the way for subsequent developments was the passing of the ten-year compact (or “Rezess”, as it was known), by the Bohemian parliament in 1748. This law guaranteed a fixed total tax contribution (5,488,155 gulders, 58 crowns) in return for a guarantee that the empress would not demand extra levies, even in the event of war. With the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War, however, the situation changed and in 1756 demands were made for exceptional taxes, military recruits, loans to the state budget, etc. Meanwhile the guarantee of a fixed total tax under the ten-year compact continued to apply. The Treaty of Hubertusburg (1763) brought no relief, as Maria Theresa asked parliament to approve not only an extension of the compact for the following military year, but new exceptional taxes and the reimposition of certain existing indirect taxes. These obligations, together with an increased tax burden in rural communities, remained in place until 1775, when a new ten-year compact was negotiated that lasted until 1789.
Reforma stanov olomoucké kapituly (1772)
The Reform of the Statutes of Olomouc Chapter (1772)
▨ Abstract: In the 18th century there were disputes over appointments to the vacant canonries in the Olomouc chapter. One of the reforms of Maria Theresa was the Chapter Statutes, which she approved in 1772 and which came into force on 1 st January 1773. The new statutes confirmed both the privilege of the free election of bishops by canons and the practice of appointing only aristocrats as canons, including so-called domicelars (non-resident Canons). The Chapter of Olomouc gained the status of an exclusively aristocratic chapter at a time when this privilege (because of secularization and other factors) was beginning to disappear. While the requirement that aspirants should have right of abode (inkolat) favoured the landed nobility, the requirement that they be of aristocratic origin favoured “only” the higher nobility, regardless of their origin or suitability for the office – a circumstance that later met with considerable criticism. The Chapter also received a new canonical seal from Maria Theresa, which its canons use to this day. Maria Theresa’s successor, Josef II, intervened again in the Chapter Statutes, limiting the influence of the Holy See over the appointment of canons and thereby enhancing the Sovereign’s influence in the Chapter.
Jiří Pavlík a Radek Pokorný
Soupisy duší v královéhradecké diecézi z let 1776–1777 jako demografické prameny a okolnosti jejich vzniku
Registers of Souls in the Diocese of Hradec Kralové from 1776–1777: A Demographic Source and Its Origins
▨ Abstract: The authors aimed to elucidate the circumstances surrounding the compilation of registers of souls in the diocese of Hradec Kralové, in the northeast of Bohemia, in the years 1776 and 1777. They also analysed the three extant registers as demographic sources for the study of the population of the day. The resulting data indicate that in the second half of the 18th century, the state had a considerable influence on how the registers of souls were kept and compiled in the Hradec Kralové diocese, and used them to obtain important information on the population, particularly in matters of religion. The volumes containing the registers of souls in 1776–77 represent an extremely valuable source from a demographic point of view that can be used not only to ascertain the numerical state of the population of a particular locality at the time of their compilation, but to study its age profile, social stratification and the typology of families and households.
Poštovní síť na Moravě v letech 1743–1790
Moravian Post Routes in 1743–1790
▨ Abstract: This paper presents a detailed analysis of the development of the postal network in the territory of Moravia during the period of its most significant expansion, based on hitherto largely unused archival material, chiefly from the Postal Museum in Prague and the Moravian Archive in Brno. Using these key sources, chronological lists were reconstructed of postmasters in each post office, allowing us to determine the exact period in which each official served. This data on periods of service made it possible to compile a list of the postal routes set up by individual offices in the period under consideration and trace changes that occurred due to military conflict or for logistical reasons. Attention was also given to the hitherto neglected network of letter collection points in Moravia, which grew rapidly towards the end of the 18th century. The study represents a paradigm shift in research into the Moravian postal network. Besides already known postal routes, we also reconstructed routes whose existence had only been deduced from the records of one or two stations, and others that had escaped the attention of researchers altogether. With regard to letter collection points, the study considers the issue of which “mother” stations they were attached to. More generally, the study deepens our knowledge of the structure of the communications network in Moravia in the second half of the 18th century and provides a more precise picture of how it was connected with centres beyond the country’s borders. These results will provide potential future researchers into the Moravian postal service with a solid factual platform in which to anchor and contextualize their findings on specific post offices, stations or entire routes. The study can thus be seen as a contribution to economic and social history, as well as to that of communications.
Osmapadesátý článek Theresiany – tradiční pojetí či dekriminalizace deliktu magie?
The 58th Article of the Theresiana – Traditional Conception or Decriminalisation of the Offense of Magic Art?
▨ Abstract: The 58th article of the penal code issued by Maria Theresa (Theresiana – 1768), let as say the Article on Sorcery (1766) did not represent (as suggested traditionally in the literature) only a not very successful compromise between the traditional penal law doctrine on the one hand and new im-pulses of the philosophy and legal thinking of the Age of Enlightenment, though it may appear so at the first sight or by superficial reading. The Empress achieved in Theresiana the decriminalisation of the offense of magic art not only in practice but de iure as well. De facto, in practice, this stage had been reached already earlier, in the second half of the fifties of the 18th century. This manner of decriminalisation is typical for the (central)european penal law in the earlier phase of the Enlighten-ment through which was also just passing the Habsburg monarchy under the reign of Maria Theresa. In the same way is for this phase of development typical the strenghtening of the protection and the rights of the accused or investigated person within the penal procedure by creating different formal and real guarantees and obstacles during the proceedings. This approach was partly a continuation of the early modern and in the early stage of Enlightenment voiced criticism of magic art and sorcery trials.Fapšo
Alois Klar mezi slepotou a osvícením. Vědění, moc a vynález sociální péče
Alois Klar between Blindness and Enlightenment. Knowledge, Power and the Invention of Social Care
▨ Abstract: This study on Alois Klar (1763–1833) focuses mainly on his achievements as a pedagogue and his work for the visually impaired. Methodologically, it draws on Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Michel Foucault, enabling us to view the evolution of social care as a concomitant of the emerging modern state and integral to its structure. The study presents an analysis of the beginnings of Klar’s Prague institute for the visually impaired against a background of rapid changes in medicine, the scope of the state, and educational thinking. At a time of compulsory school attendance and new approaches to education, when the state demanded the active participation of its subjects/citizens in propagating its aims and the values of society as a whole, the blind and partially sighted were given access to a full and systematic education. We also present data concerning Klar’s educational work and thinking (he taught in Litoměřice and at Prague University), and examine the internal workings of the newly established institute – one of the first of its kind in Europe – and its contacts with the medical discourse of the emerging science of ophthalmology.
Organizace tisku učebnic v Čechách. Přizpůsobení jedné tereziánské reformy
The Organization of Textbooks’ Publishing in Bohemia. Adapting One of the Theresian Reforms
▨ Abstract: In the context of Maria Theresa’s educational reforms, the article analyses the introduction of new school textbooks in Bohemia as an attempt to build a new type of state economic enterprise. For the first twenty years after compulsory education was introduced in 1774, a balance had to be struck for the publication of textbooks between standardization and adaptability, in order to over- come the obstacles and conflicts inherent in the reforms. In implementing the reforms it was thus necessary to deviate from certain fundamental principles – dirigism, uniformity and centralization. An economic system based on the awarding of privileges was faced with the challenge of meeting public order on an unprecedented scale. Moreover, an economic model for publishing schoolbooks had to be devised that could function as an instrument of social policy while remaining financially sustainable. The new publishing house had to ensure regular high-volume distribution of the new product throughout a territory that lacked any commercial infrastructure in the field of bookselling.
Původci a čtenáři rukopisné produkce z Čech. Příspěvek k dějinám vzdělanosti v „dlouhém“ 18. století
Originators and Readers of Bohemian Manuscripts. Contribution to History of Literacy in the “Long” 18th Century
▨ Abstract: The paper examines origin and professional background of the scribes of the 18th century Bohemian manuscripts and follows the changes in the social structure of their readers, using the information from several hundred handwritten books and documents. Received data show that the number of scribes is rising immensely in the last decades of the 18th century. The most distinct growth might be observed within the number of scribes working in the rural areas. In the first half of the 18th century the most productive group of scribes are monks. In the last quarter of the century this role goes to teachers and parish priests. Their production, however, often has commercial or official character. Besides in the late period of the century strongly increases representation of craftsmen and farmers among the scribes. Also growth of the number of readers living in the countryside, especially women, might be observed. These changes seem to be the results of educational, administrative and Church reforms performed by Maria Theresa and Joseph II in the late 18th century.
Alena A. Fidlerová
Duchovní život českých sympatizantů obnovené Jednoty z Husince u Střelína v dlouhém 18. století, popsaný na základě ojedinělého rukopisného pramene
Spiritual Life of Czech Sympathizers of the Herrnhut Unitas Fratrum from Husinec near Strzelin in the Long 18th Century, Described according to a Unique Manuscript Source
▨ Abstract: The article tries to characterise the spiritual life of a group of members of the Czech Reformed exile community in Husinec near Strzelin in Silesia at the turn of the 18th and 19th century. It starts with a detailed analysis of a unique manuscript miscellany written there by certain senior Bureš in 1833 and containing Czech translations of various German texts, mostly sermons (especially of the famous Pietistic preacher Ludwig Hofacker), but also travel diaries of Herrnhut missionaries in North America and Greenland from the 1770s, translated by a certain J. S., probably the former local teacher Jan Sovák. It identifies both the scribe and the translator as diaspora sympathizers of the Herrnhut Unitas, striving to supply for themselves and other members of their community spiritual texts suitable for reading aloud during their worship. As a possible model for the miscellany, the article identifies Gemeinnachrichten, the German manuscript periodical of the Unitas, which also combined sermons with missionary reports and diaries and was accessible to a limited extent to diaspora sympathizers. Finally, the article characterizes the spiritual life of the Husinec diaspora as rather eclectic, but capable of active reception of various Pietistic spiritual impulses, partly, but not exclusively emanating from the Unitas. This seems to support the thesis that Early Modern Czech non-Catholic exile played an important role in the Czech-German literary, cultural and religious relations.
▨ Abstract: The article sets into focus the everyday practices of caring the sick in the Poor Clares’ convents of Bratislava, Trnava, Zagreb, Buda and Pest with a time scope focused on the era of Maria Theresa’s and Joseph II’s church reforms. It evinces that each convent had an infirmary, in which the sill nuns could be separated from the rest of the community and nursed according to the instructions of a doctor, but the investigation of the rooms and their equipment also reveals significant differences among them. While the infirmary was merely a sickroom with three or four beds in the case of the smaller communities of Zagreb and Pest, the bigger convents’ infirmaries – that accommodated nine-twelve patients – consisted of a complex set of interconnected spaces with various functions, including storage rooms, cooking facilities and places for making medicine. The infirmary chapels of Bratislava and Trnava and the liturgical equipment in the bigger, hall-like sickroom in Buda represent the interconnectedness of spiritual and medical care. The study also sheds light on possible correlations between self-supply and services provided by external lay practitioners, as it presents the strategies of the convents to reduce medical expenses, e.g. by producing medicaments, accepting novices with surgical-apothecary knowledge or contracting surgeons and physicians for a fixed annual salary. Finally, the paper points towards further research directions suggesting a more sophisticated analysis of the correlations between the nuns’ demand for proper medical care and their agency at the time of the abolition of their order in 1782.
Ondřej Hudeček / 59
„Obecný lid nejvíc ziskem k činům se popuzuje“. Záchrany lidí před utonutím v Čechách na konci 18. století
“Nought Invigorates the Commoner more than Remuneration.” Saving People from Drowning in Late Eighteenth-Century Bohemia
▨ Abstract: This article examines the administration of rescue operations to save people from drowning and the distribution of rewards to rescuers in Bohemia during the 1780s and 1790s. Based on documented interrogations and official records, the article looks at the investigatory process, the conditions rescuers had to fulfil in order to apply for a reward from the Bohemian Gubernium, and the role of other actors in this process, such as witnesses and doctors. The study departs from the concept of biopolitics developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault and shows how the state authorities tried to foster mutual solidarity among town dwellers. While Enlightenment thinkers continued to stress the role of “love for human beings” (Menschenliebe), i.e. universal interpersonal solidarity, the elites held the view that the biggest motivation for anyone to save a person from drowning was monetary reward. The aim of the enlighteners, however, was to encourage people to embrace the ideal of “Menschenliebe” and to fully identify with it – hence their emphasis on cases of selfless acts, especially in newspapers and popular literature. Besides that, the article analyses the trend towards the medicalization of society in the Enlightenment period and changes in attitudes to death.
Michal Kneblík / 84
Učitelé nižších škol v době reforem a osvícenství
Elementary School Teachers in the Age of Reform and Enlightenment
▨ Abstract: In the present text I have attempted to describe the profession of elementary school teacher and the changes it underwent in the last quarter of the 18th century. At that time, the education of the majority of children between the ages of six and twelve or thirteen was mostly in the hands of village schoolmasters, and these are my primary focus. Following the reform of the education system by Maria Teresa, teachers in Bohemia and Moravia were trained predominantly in what were known as preparanda at the Normal School in Prague. Their training differed from that of their predecessors in that their knowledge was now tested in examinations, with greater emphasis on teaching methods and closer supervision. Drawing on lists of teacher training graduates and other sources, I have analysed how many graduated every year and under what conditions, what textbooks they later used in the classroom, and the official view of pedagogy at that time. From those lists I was able to conclude that graduates who only spoke Czech ended up teaching only in small Czech-medium village schools. By looking at certain individual teachers more closely (such as the composer Jakub Jan Ryba, the pastor Tomáš Juren and several members of the Vlach family of teachers from Boleslav), my aim was to describe in outline the career of these “Czech” village schoolmasters, their motivation, level of knowledge, and deduce what they probably taught. From 1787 on, they were subject to inspection by regional school commissioners. I focussed on the first sixteen of these (one for each region), noting in particular how they were selected, their duties and aims. For it is they who were the guarantors of the new school system and the disseminators of the new thinking.As a result of the reforms, mandatory training and more exacting standards, elementary school teachers were able to improve their social standing and prestige. This meant that by the end of the 18th century they had become an important part of the emerging Czech-speaking elite.
Studie a materiály
Eva Kowalská / 7
Uhorské školské reformy – impulz pre sociálny vzostup učiteľov elementárnych škôl?
The Hungarian School Reforms – an Impulse for a Social Advancement of Elementary School Teachers?
▨ Abstract: As servants of their church community, teachers had to spend much of their time on activities that today we might consider secondary – tasks relating to their ancillary duties as cantor, organist or verger. But in rural communities the teachers, alongside the priests, were often the only educated men in the parish and played a not inconsiderable role in the early stages of the national revival movement. The school reforms passed in 18th century Hungary opened the way for teachers – even those in elementary schools – to improve their social standing and prestige, on condition they fulfilled certain expectations as formulated in the basic reform programme, Ratio educationis (1777). Our paper examines the new types of school (normal, preparatory) that offered teachers better chances of social advancement and public acceptance. Drawing on case studies of teachers in several schools, it documents how they managed to meet the demands made on them while still pursuing and realizing their own ambitions.
Ingrid Kušniráková / 19
Kráľovské akadémie a šľachtické konvikty – miesto formovania nových šľachtických úradníckych elít v Uhorsku v 18. storočí
Royal Academies and Noble Colleges – Training Grounds for New Administrative Elites in 18th Century Hungary
▨ Abstract: The first Noble Colleges were founded in the 17th and 18th centuries by Jesuits and Piarists as an extension of existing secondary schools with the aim of providing education for the sons of impoverished gentlefolk. In the context of the Counter‑Reformation these institutions placed especial emphasis on religious education and the formation of moral and ethical values in their pupils. They were intended chiefly for Catholics of noble birth and Catholic converts who would otherwise have received no education because their parents could not afford it or had died young. After the accession of Marie Theresa and the introduction of new legislation (Articles 74/1715 and 70/1723), the state took charge of these establishments, and with them their scholars, their welfare and their upbringing. Religious education and rote‑learning of a narrow curriculum was now supplemented by foreign languages (German, Hungarian and French) and other subjects (calligraphy, arithmetic and geography). In the latter half of the 18th century the Viennese court set up a number of noble academies, including several in Hungary where young Hungarian noblemen could acquire an education commensurate with their social standing. Under Marie Theresa’s system of royal scholarships many poor students from the middle and lower nobility were able to receive an education. During her reign scholarship places in the academies and noble colleges became an instrument of social policy used by senior civil servants as rewards for services rendered, thus ensuring a new generation of public officials indebted and loyal to the Viennese Court.
Gabriela Krejčová Zavadilová a Hana Stoklasová / 35
Evangeličtí kazatelé z Uher – formování nové společenské skupiny
Evangelical Preachers from Hungary – the Formation of a New Social Group
▨ Abstract: The paper deals with the topic of evangelical preachers of the Helvetic and the Augsburg Confession coming from the Hungarian part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after the Patent of Toleration was issued, and establishing tolerance evangelical congregations in Bohemia and Moravia. Based on studying the sources of particular tolerance Czech congregations (for example Moraveč, Humpolec, Dvakačovice, Lozice, Raná, Sány, Prague), the process of forming a new social stratum of the petty intelligentsia, whose creation was conditioned by the Enlightenment reforms, is outlined. The text shows how the Hungarian preachers made the first contacts with the emerging evangelical communities, gives an idea of the circumstances of their arrival, describes the way of their adapting to an unfamiliar environment and their effort to stabilize the congregations. These particular findings are generalized in order to define some common characteristics typical of this group of Enlightenment intellectuals.
Petronela Križanová / 61
„Ani o grajciar viac…“ Klientela bratislavských kníhkupcov v radoch uhorského evanjelického duchovenstva
“Not a Penny More…” Hungarian Protestant Clerics as Customers of Bratislava Bookshops
▨ Abstract: The author examines the clientele of the Bratislava booksellers Anton Löwe and Philip Ulrich Mahler in the context of the Hungarian book trade from 1770 to 1800. By analysing the extant correspondence of Michal Institoris Mošovský, a protestant pastor in Bratislava, she was able to par‑ tially identify one segment of their customer base – protestant clergymen. For many years these mem‑ bers of the petty intelligentsia purchased from the Bratislava booksellers, in particular imported wor‑ ks by the German pietists and Enlightenment theologians. The author also investigated the social and geographical limits of the distribution process, some of the contact and distribution networks, and the identity of key figures.
Rudolf Svoboda / 77
Osvícenské vlivy v pedagogickém díle Jana Valeriána Jirsíka
Influences of Enlightenment in the Pedagogical Works of Jan Valerián Jirsík
▨ Abstract: This paper considers the influence of Enlightenment thinking on the pedagogical works of Jan Valerián Jirsík (1798–1883), who earned a place in Czech history as a priest, theologian, active patriot, education campaigner, pedagogue, writer and not least as the fourth Bishop of České Budějovice (Budweis), an office he held from 1851 until his death. Primarily, it draws on and follows up ideas in the writings of the theologian Ctirad Václav Pospíšil and the church historian Kamila Veverková, who both trace the links between Jirsík the theologist and thinkers associated with Bernard Bolzano. Jirsík’s early writings, however, are as much concerned with pedagogy as they are with theology, and the aim of this study is to discover whether his ideas on education were similarly influenced by Enlightenment thinking. It analyses his views on the subject before 1851, i.e. until he became Bishop of Budweis – specifically in the period 1826–1843, when he was much occupied with questions of education and upbringing. In his years as bishop he devoted little time to literary pursuits. The study concludes that the legacy of the Enlightenment era most certainly played an important part in Jirsík’s deliberations on education. There is, however, a certain progression discernible in his thinking. In the early period, of which Sunday School (1826) is a representative text, we see the influence of contemporary Enlightenment clerical pedagogy as he advocates extending human knowledge through reason in order to improve living conditions. Faith and religion are also factors here, especially in his emphasis on the positive role of God the Creator. In the second period under consideration (1836–43), we find closer parallels between Jirsík’s pedagogical and theological thinking. Within ten years of writing Sunday School, his position had shifted from that of a priest attempting to expand or improve education in the spirit of Enlightenment ecclesiastical pedagogy to that of a theologian (and so‑called ‘true’ enlightener) who from theological considerations drew conclusions for the educational process. In Jirsík’s view, Christianity and Enlightenment go hand in hand, serving to elevate human life spiritually as well as materially. For him education means the enlightenment of both soul and reason. Nor does he see any contradiction between faith and rationality. It is evident from his thinking that he was convinced of the need to implement the pedagogical ideal of the Enlightenment: to educate virtuous citizens who were also rational.
Recenze a zprávy
Ivo Cerman: Aufklärung oder Illuminismus? (Václav Smyčka)
Nakladatelé a jejich dopisy v německojazyčném osvícenství. Komunikační pole autor – nakladatel – vydavatel (Michael Wögerbauer)
Den s jezuitským divadlem (Jan Zdichynec)
Studie a materiály
Miroslav Hroch / 7
Měly „plebejské“ kořeny inteligence význam pro tvářnost národa?
How Important Was the “Plebeian” Intelligentsia in Building the Czech Nation?
▨ Abstract: The aim of this paper is to point out that the growing need for well‐educated citizens in the increasingly bureaucratized 18th Century, in itself a well‐known phenomenon, should be seen in a wider context. First, we must consider how it relates to the gradual emergence of the modern European nation‐state; and secondly, to the cultural and political consequences of social stratification. In nations with a cohesive social structure and, in some cases, a tradition of statehood, the growing numbers and importance of the new intelligentsia were primarily the result of an expansion of existing elites drawing on their own social class. In emerging nations formed largely through nationalist movements, on the other hand, the process was accompanied by the upward mobility of young men from the middle and lower middle classes. In some nations, such as the Czechs and the Finns, these were often the sons of petit bourgeois and artisan families; but in the majority of cases the emergent national intelligentsia found its recruits chiefly among farmers and the rural population as a whole (Lithuania, Estonia). Understandably, this distinction led to differences in the formation of national stereotypes, political cultures and attitudes to social organization. The use of the term “plebeian intelligentsia” in this context is meant as a typological characteristic rather than a pejorative label.
Miroslav Novotný a Tomaš Veber / 19
Ze mlýna, tkalcovny či od řeznického špalku ke kněžské sutaně: Formování drobné kněžské inteligence na jihu Čech v 1. polovině 19. století
From Millwheel, Loom or Butcher’s Block to Priest’s Habit: The Emergence of a Minor Intelligentsia in South Bohemia, 1800–1850
▨ Abstract: Minor intelligentsia, significantly influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the policy and practice of the church before 1848, included the bishopric priests. The authors show not only their gradual formation, but on concrete examples they prove their mutual relationships, influences and individual activities. The fates of butcher’s, miller’s, farmer’s or weaver’s boys show, on the one hand, the social and professional variety of these representatives of future small town and village elites, on the other hand they point out to important relationships between centres such as Prague or Vienna and the periphery which, in the early nineteenth century, included Budweis and other cities not just in the South of Bohemia.
Eva Hajdinová / 35
Předtoleranční a toleranční nekatolíci v Čechách jako přiklad omezené, avšak charakteristické skupiny drobné inteligence
Pre‐Tolerance and Tolerance Era Non‐Catholics in Bohemia as a Limited but Characteristic Example of “Plebeian” Intelligentsia
▨ Abstract: The article maps a numerically limited and religiously and socially discriminated group of pre‐tolerance and tolerance non‐Catholics, thus a group of persons of restricted education, which was except some rare examples limited to the basic level. In this regard, the text offers a more compendious analysis of one confessional and social group that was most of the time just a restricted recipient of the enlightened ideas and education spread by so‐called “plebeian” intelligence and most of all by new protestant preachers. This group showed however a great ability to absorb, transform, create and spread within their community the adopted and own thoughts, the fact that significantly contributed to their emancipation in the following period.
Hedvika Kuchařová / 61
Stabilita, nebo proměna? Sociální původ strahovských premonstrátů na přelomu 18. a 19. století
Stability or Transformation? The Social Origins of the Premonstratensian Canonry at Strahov in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries
▨ Abstract: This paper examines the social origins of the members of the Premonstratensian Canonry at Strahov, Prague, in the last quarter of the 18th and the second quarter of the 19th centuries. In the introduction we outline changes in the composition of the community in the period under discussion (a decline in the number of canons in the late 18thC and its causes; changes in their activities both within the order and in the public sphere). The main focus of the study is two surveys into the social origins of individual Premonstratensians covering the intake of novices in the periods 1750–1763 and 1804–1816, in which we assume they would attain the peak of their monastic career after 20–25 years spent with the order. Our main source was the confirmation of baptism of individual candidates, records of which for the years in question are relatively intact in the Strahov archive; these were supplemented by research in the relevant registries. An analysis of the data showed that the majority of novices at Strahov monastery were young men with an urban background, whereby there is a clearly perceptible shift from the elite urban classes in the first sample to more artisan circles, as well as a higher proportion of privileged boys from small provincial towns, in the second. Surprisingly, in the early years of the 19th century we no longer find the sons of officials employed in patrimonial (i.e. estate) administration. However, a broader chronological sample would be necessary to confirm that this was indeed a long‐term trend. Neither was it confirmed that more young men of rural origin were interested in joining a monastery, as we had assumed, not even those from the Strahov estates. This shift was not to happen till far later in the century.
Vaclav Grubhoffer / 77
„Je to boj přírody o život & smrt...“ Lékaři ve službách Schwarzenbergů v letech 1780–1830
“This is Nature’s Battle of Life and Death” Doctors in the Service of the Schwarzenbergs, 1780–1830
▨ Abstract: From the 1780s on, the court of the Princes of Schwarzenberg generally maintained four or five personal doctors. These privileged positions were frequently held by individuals who also practised as municipal or county physicians. In their castles in Bohemia the Schwarzenbergs also em‐ ployed surgeons and apothecaries, and in line with the professionalization of medical care during the Enlightenment they attached great importance to the training of health workers. In the first three de‐ cades of the 19th century health care in the context of the Schwarzenberg primogeniture became even more specialized and the number of medical staff on the various Schwarzenberg estates increased. In addition to their own physicians, the Schwarzenbergs also entrusted their health needs to eminent medical experts drawn primarily from the Habsburg court and the University of Vienna and later, from the 1830s on, to many doctors working in the Czech Lands. This study considers the relationship be‐ tween the high nobility as representatives of social elites on the one hand and the Enlightenment medicalization of society with its professionalization of health care on the other. It maps the structure of medical care within one aristocratic family and their estates and its transformation over a fifty‐year period. It also attempts to discover who the Schwarzenbergs’ doctors were and what socio‐cultural background they came from.
Recenze a zprávy
Milan Sobotka: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Josef Fulka)
14. kongres Mezinárodní společnosti pro výzkum 18. století (Claire Madl)
Nové pohledy na život a dílo Jana Dismase Zelenky (Marc Niubo)
Studie a materiály
Eva Hajdinová / 7
Přežívající praxe ilegálních sňatků a křtů francouzských hugenotů v 18. století. Osvícenský diskurz a dědické právo jako podstatné pilíře v procesu prosazení náboženské tolerance
The Surviving Practice of Illegal Marriage and Baptism among Huguenots in the 18th Century. Enlightenment Discourse and Inheritance Law as the Two Main Pillars in the Process of Achieving Religious Tolerance
▨ Abstract: The study presents an empirical analysis of the risky practice of illegal marriage and baptism among Huguenots in 18th century France, drawing on contemporary pamphlets to trace the problematic evolution of French Calvinist inheritance law – a process that played a decisive part in efforts to relegalize Calvinism in the kingdom. Agitators for the reformed church pursued two main lines of argument: Calvinist pastors, both within the country and in exile, made increasingly active use of
Enlightenment philosophical discourse that condemned religious intolerance. At the same time, especially from the 1760s on, pamphleteers emphasized the social and economic importance of the Huguenot upper class. Together, these arguments helped overcome received ideas about the risk of an anti‐state “protestant conspiracy” organized by the exile community (“conjuration de l’étranger Huguenot”), which was in turn linked to the financial power of the Huguenot banking families that had been a leitmotif of criticism since the 16th century. Instead, a positive image of the Calvinists’ social contribution was presented, stressing their usefulness and loyalty to state and sovereign. Among their
supporters at court were the lawyers and ministers de Breuil and de Malesherbes, who eventually succeeded in pushing through reforms.
Josef Vacek / 35
Každodennost a sexuální delikty na Křivoklátsku na přelomu 17. a 18. století
Everyday Life and Sexual Offences in Křivoklátsko Area in the Late Seventeenth and the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century
▨ Abstract: The paper analyses the everyday life of Křivoklát vassals in the late seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. As the primary source the author uses mainly the records of examination of sexual offenders. Tree particular cases are analysed in details with the help of other primary sources in order to discover the patterns of everyday life behavior in the period. The importance of role of honor in the everyday life of early modern people and individuality of decision‐making of their authorities are the main conclusions of this paper.
Martin Liška / 51
Voltairův životopis Karla XII.
Voltaire’s Biography of Charles XII
▨ Abstract: The aim of the following study is to analyze Voltaire’s biography about Charles XII as an early part of Voltaire’s historiographical work and also to analyze the ideas of the Enlightenment the author used. The study also tries to answer the question which lesson a reader should get and which interpretations should be on the other hand avoided.
Michal Konečný / 65
Výuka inženýrských věd na stavovských akademiích v Praze, Vídni a Olomouc v 18. století
Training the Empire’s Builders at the Academies of the Nobility in Prague, Vienna and Olomouc in the 18th Century
▨ Abstract: A major reform in the reign of Joseph II was the establishment in 1786 of the provincial building directorates, through which the court aimed to regulate all public building works in the monarchy. Although the original aim of unifying building regulations throughout the realm was never achieved, the reform was a success and remained in force, with a few minor amendments, until the revolutionary year of 1848. One reason for its success was the elite corps of civil engineers who staffed these institutions. This study looks at advances in technical education, especially engineering, in the Habsburg monarchy from the beginning of the 18th century and the emergence of the Collegia Nobilia, or elite colleges, where graduates were prepared for a career in the Imperial Army. Besides military architecture, the colleges also taught the fundamentals of civil engineering, turning out some of the best‐trained creators of early modern architecture. The development and nature of this elite engineering training is examined with reference to the engineering academies of Prague, Vienna and Olomouc. In all three cases we stress the colleges’ status within the state framework, and their evolution in the light of changing official doctrine and methods of instruction. In all three cases it is clear that during the latter half of the 18th century the original ‘aristocratic’ colleges began to decline and were slowly replaced by similar state‐controlled establishments. As a first step, the court of Joseph II introduced a specialized course in practical architecture at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. From around 1800 this model was gradually superseded by the progressive French‐style polytechnic, a modified version of which remains the standard model for technical education to this day.
Helmut Reinalter / 85
Kaiser Joseph II. und die Freimaurerei
Emperor Joseph II and the Freemasonry
▨ Abstract: On March 12, 1781, the lodge “Zur wahren Eintracht” (“True Concord”), which was originally a secession of the lodge “Zur gekrönten Hoffnung” (“Crowned Hope”), was initiated – a lodge that would show itself to be paramount for the further development of Freemasonry in Austria. It supported the establishment of new masons’ guilds in the provinces of the Habsburg monarchy and actively contributed there. The deputized Grand Master and ducal Saxe‐Weimar resident at the Viennese Court, Christian Bernhard von Isenflamm, envisaged the construction of an elite lodge, which could indeed be built. While at first, aulic surgeon Ignaz Fisher assumed the titular administration of the lodge – Isenflamm had refused a function due to his public status – later privy councilor Ignaz Edler von Born, who as Master of the Chair would soon advance the lodge to an elite association with a literary‐scientific inclination, joined with his circle. Born did not publicly support the establishment of an imperial academy in Vienna, because he wanted to realize the academic thought within Freemasonry. The lodge “Zur wahren Eintracht” especially lent itself to the achievement of this goal, because it had been headed from the beginning by men of the sciences. Under Joseph II, the Freemasons used the press well in order to gain a broader base of influence. However, because the Freemasons were not willing to be politically instrumented by Joseph II, Joseph II issued an imperial hand billet which reduced the number of lodges and with which the emperor hoped to bring the Freemasons under his control. The imperial hand billet resulted in a veritable flood of brochures which had already started in 1781 and now received fresh impetus. The disappointment of the Freemasons was immense and the imperial decree led to the demise of the lodges in Austria.
Recenze a zprávy
Václav Petrbok: Stýkání, nebo potýkání? (Jakub Ivánek) / 119
Eva Kowalská: Na ďalekých cestách, v cudzích krajinách (Eva Hajdinová) / 123
Claire Madl: „Tous les goûts à la fois“ (Milena Lenderová) / 128
Rudolf Svoboda: Arnošt Konstantin Růžička (Miroslav Novotný) / 130
Konference v Admontu 2014 (Lucie Michková) / 134
Oprava – Richtigstellung / 135
Studie a materiály
Josef Fulka / 7
Gesture, Language and Affect: Rousseau, Condillac and Their Relevance for Linguistic Research Today [English original]
▨ Abstract: The aim of the present text is to consider 18th century language genealogies, as proposed by Rousseau and Condillac, in relation to the question of gesture and affectivity. For it seems that a certain form of affect – need in Condillac, passion in Rousseau – comes to play a central role in the speculations concerning the possible origin of human communication whose nature is invariably considered to be gestural as well as vocal. Our aim will be to show that the insights both thinkers present on the subject corresponds, quite remarkably, with certain findings of modern linguistics and psychology. It is, of course, impossible to treat the issue in all its complexity; all that we will attempt to do is concentrate on certain significant passages and pinpoint what we consider to be the most remarkable arguments.
Václav Grubhoffer – Josef Kadeřábek / 25
Od teatrality k intimitě? Emoce a smrt u Martiniců a Schwarzenbergů v období baroka a romantismu
Emotions and Death of the Counts of Martinice and the Princes of Schwarzenberg between the Baroque and the Romanticism
▨ Abstract: Between the Baroque and Romanticism attitudes to death and the discursive framework of the emotional experience of dying fundamentally changed among the Catholic high nobility. The ideal baroque death was supposed to take the form of an extreme point at which the dying person confessed their sins through theatrical gestures and utterances. The deathbed ritual explicitly confirmed the denominational and spiritual orientation of the family. In succeeding generations, both aristocrats and commoners were expected to be confirmed in that orientation by a written and iconographic testimony rich in symbols. Romanticism, on the other hand, imbued the process of dying with sentiment, loving care and family cohesion, which among the high nobility brought solace and a peaceful death. Finally, between the Baroque and Romanticism the relative status of private and public experience of the last moments changed. The Baroque “theatrical” deathbed, which was presented with the central figure of the dying individual and the priest, was a public event. Gradually it changed into a more intimate, quiet contemplation with only a few witnesses gathered in the family circle. Moreover, the doctor came to replace the priest as the chief attendant at the dying person’s bedside. What remained unchanged was the anxious determination to conform to expected patterns of behaviour. By trying to fulfil the contemporary ideal of a “good death”, the counts of Martinice and the princes of Schwarzenberg tried to affirm their unique position in Bohemian (and European) aristocratic society. Their emotional experience of death was intended to serve as an example to their descendants and form one of the constitutive elements of the family’s collective memory.
Sixtus Bolom-Kotari / 39
Evangelická láska. Bůh, člověk a ctnostné mravy mezi tradicí a osvícenstvím
Evangelical Love. God, Man and Virtuous Manners between Tradition and Enlightenment
▨ Abstract: This paper considers various approaches to love and morality in Protestant society in the late 18th century, as illustrated in Czech‐language religious and educational literature (Korunka, aneb Wjnek Pannenský wssechněm pobožným a sslechetným Pannám toho Gazyku užjwagjcým, Litomyšl 1784; Kazatel Domovnj, Brno 1783). Our focus is on divine love, man’s love of God, marital love, parental and filial love, and definitions of immorality. We also examine some contemporary reactions to religious and educational writings in the memoirs of one of their readers, the rural preacher and Bible scholar Tomáš Juren (1750–1829), as well as the differences between the Christian confessions in their attitude to the emotions.
Tomáš Dufka / 49
Podoby lásky v tvorbě českých buditelů sklonku 18. století
Depictions of Love in the Works of the Czech National Revivalists of the Late 18th Century
▨ Abstract: This study examines how love was represented in late 18th century Czech fiction, as exemplified in the works of Antonín Josef Zíma and Prokop Šedivý. First we place Czech writing in its historical context with reference to contemporary French literature. We then focus on the formal features of works on love, discuss the influence of Sentimentalism on Czech culture, and finally consider the relationship between love and morality. Our study concludes that there is no evidence of originality in attitudes to love in late 18th century Czech fiction; instead, writers looked to foreign literatures for their themes. The resonance they produced in the Czech context, however, was different from that in countries with a richer literary tradition.
Dmitrij Timofejev / 59
Radost a smutek v Pamětech Františka Jana Vaváka
Joy and Grief in the Memoirs of František Jan Vavák
▨ Abstract: The article looks at how emotion is represented in Bohemian folk chronicles, i.e. texts of a historiographic character, written by autodidacts — mostly peasants and artisans. At the core of our analysis is the most famous work of this kind, Paměti Františka Jana Vaváka z let 1770–1816 (Memoirs of František Jan Vavák 1770–1816). Other writings from the turn of the 19th century (e.g. those of Václav Jan Mašek, Jan Petr, Ondřej Lukavský) are also considered. Our initial question is: How, and in which contexts, did Czech-speaking authors of the late 18th and early 19th century, having no opportunity to get acquainted with contemporary philosophical theories, express affects? The study shows that the emotions, especially joy and grief, are expressed in a way recommended by early modern rhetoricians (e.g. Cypriano de Soarez or Bernard Lamy): particular figures are associated with particular affects. Though the principle is the same, the figures used by autodidacts differ from those recommended by the rhetoric manuals. Being unable to read Latin, German or French rhetorics, the authors had probably grasped the principles of how to represent affect from their reading, but adapted them according to their own talent and vision. As might be expected given the rural origin and values of the authors, joy is expressed mostly in the context of weather favourable for the harvest, while grief is realised in the context of rising prices and natural disasters.
Daniela Tinková / 73
Mechanismus vášní v „économie animale“ K otázce vášní duše v osvícenské medicíně
The Mechanism of Passions in the “économie animale” Passions of the Soul in 18th Century Medical Thought
▨ Abstract: The aim of this study is to show how the emotions — in particular the so-called “passions of the soul” — were understood and interpreted in the medical thinking of the late Enlightenment. We focus chiefly on three innovations in 18th century medicine: the “discovery” of the neuro-cerebral system (the ’birth’ of neurology); the search for the “seat” of illnesses in particular organs (the “birth” of pathological anatomy); and the gradual separation of the body and the soul as objects of medical enquiry (the “birth of psychiatry). We consider whether, and to what extent, these innovations contributed to the breakdown of the “old” diagnostic paradigms of the “passions of the soul”, or whether in fact they helped to maintain them. We also discuss to what extent the consideration of these passions fostered a new approach to the relationship between the body and the soul in Enlightenment medicine. Some of the phenomena studied are illustrated by specific examples of (erotic) love and melancholy.
Joanna Giel / 93
Der Wiener Dramatiker Paul Weidmann und sein aufklärerisches Konzept des Theaters (an Fallbeispielen)
Viennese Playwright Paul Weidmann and his Enlightenment Concept of Theatre (for the Selected Examples)
▨ Abstract: This article discusses the Enlightenment concept of theatre as formulated in the work of the Viennese playwright Paul Weidmann, who was active in the reign of Joseph II (1765–90). In Weidmann’s conception, theatre has two main functions: one is to provide a theoretical basis (the idea of a national theatre; theatre as a school of moral educational); the second is to delineate a socio-historical context. The themes explored by Weidmann are civil war and wars of religion, and the question of how to level social differences — problems that still very much beset the modern world. In the face of current religious, political and economic conflicts, Weidmann’s stage plays still carry a powerful message.
Recenze a zprávy
Jiří Mikulec: Náboženský život a barokní zbožnost v českých zemích (Z. Orlita) / 105
„Zrození citů“ a proměna emocionality v 18. století? Jutta Stalfort: Die Erfindung der Gefühle. Eine Studie über den historischen Wandel menschlicher Emotionalität (1750–1850) (D. Tinková) / 109
Ivona Kollárová: Slobodný vydavateľ, mysliaci čitateľ Typografické médium v jozefínskej dobe (C. Madl) / 112
Stefan Michael Newerkla, Václav Petrbok, Taťána Vykypělová: Maximilian Schimek: Vorläufer der wissenschaftlichen Slawistik: Leben, Werk, Editionen (H. Keipert) / 114
„Procedurálně rovni“ (D. Tinková) / 118
Vášně, gender, identita. 20. Fachtagung des Arbeitskreises Geschlechtergeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit (AKGG‐FNZ) (D. Tinková) / 120
Studie a materiály
Tomáš Malý: „Vášně duše“ a dešifrování raně novověkých emocí
(“Passions of the Soul” and Decoding of the Early Modern Emotions) / 7
▨ Abstract: In this essay, which combines an analysis of the early modern art, art theory and religious literature I attempt to imply chances and limits of understanding emotions of the people living in the 17th and 18th centuries. I concentrate myself on the images presenting the souls in purgatory and hell and using the example of pain experience I follow cultural models, variety and range of representations as well as relation between body and soul. I am also interested in connection between the word and pictorial definition of emotions on the one side and their using in concrete pieces of art on the other.
Magdaléna Jacková: Amabimus nos! (Láska, žárlivost a nenávist na jevištích jezuitských gymnázií)
(Amabimus nos! - Love, Jealousy and Hatred on the Stage of Jesuit Schools) / 21
▨ Abstract: When spectators see a baroque play staged with use of period means of expression, they often appreciate fine form, but lack emotions. Dealing with Jesuit school plays from the first half of the 18th century, whose theme is true friendship, this article illustrates that baroque drama actually combines stylized form and strong emotions. It was also the main aim of baroque theatre: to transfer the emotions through this form.
Eva Pauerová Senekovo pojetí hněvu v díle jezuitského dramatika Karla Kolčavy
(Seneca’s Conception of Anger in the Work of the Jesuit Playwright Karel Kolčava) / 31
▨ Abstract: Emotions and passions, especially the negative ones, played a major role in Seneca’s writing: the anger became the object of his philosophical treatise De ira and prevailed also in his tragedies. Seneca was probably the most important model for jesuit playwrigts which implies the question how these authors worked with his conception of anger and rage as destructive emotions, in which measure they took it over or changed it. Jesuit playwrights are represented here by Karel Kolčava whose plays are the only ones published as collected works during his life. In addition, there are (also published) Kolčava’s didactic letters, which gives us the opportunity to compare his theoretical view of anger with the Seneca’s one in the first part of the article. The realization of these conceptions is then observed on a few examples taken from the respective plays of both authors. Finally a special attention is paid to female characters in rage who are so important in Seneca’s tragedies and who can be found in Kolčava’s plays although women were not welcome on the jesuit stage even as characters.
Láska proti zákonu v libretu pastorální opery L’Amor non ha legge (Jaroměřice 1728)
(Love against the Law in the Libretto of Pastoral Opera L’Amor non ha legge, Jaroměřice 1728) / 41
▨ Abstract: The pastoral opera L’Amor non ha legge (premiered in Jaroměřice, 1728) was composed by the vicekapellmeister Antonio Caldara, based on libretto by Domenico Bonlini. It is the first attested dramatic musical composition written at the direct order of Count Johann Adam Questenberg (1678–1752), a connoisseur of music, skilled lute player, an occasional composer, and – above all – a passionate promoter of the Italian opera seria. The present article concerns with the generic examination of the plot of opera seria, with regard to its superior genre, favola pastorale.
In L’Amor non ha legge, living in harmony with the Nature gains general appraisal, the Idyllic merry‐making in the countryside being sharply contrasted with life in the city and at the (imperial) court. As a result, the main character, young aristocrat, having become enamoured with a shepherdess, leaves for the country where he is allowed to repose and forget the hustle and bustle of the city, as well as its corruptness. These characteristics seem to be fitting the personality of Count Questenberg himself, who sought a refuge from the city to his castle of Jaroměřice, set in the rural region of Southern Moravia.
As Bonlini states in his introductory argomento, the aim of the opera is, primarily, to celebrate simple, undemanding Love. Not coincidentally, both meanings of the word ’Amor’ are made use of in the libretto; the abstract ’Love’, as well as the personified name of the God of Love – Amor. Love verses and lovely affections are abundant in the language and the plot of the opera; what Bonlini is most concerned with, especially in the arias, is to depict as many aspects of Love, hence the affects, as possible: constant love, love suffering, requited love, noble love, miserable love, vain love, martyred love, jealous love, despising love, even paternal love.
The message of the opera L’Amor non ha legge, therefore, is the imperative of symbiosis between Man and the Laws of Nature; the Law of Love, superior even to the obstacles of social inequality, should – according to Bonlini – always be in accordance with the Reason. Favorizing the pastoral environment over the court and city, in particular, can be read as a laud of the castle of Jaroměřice, which the Count was justly proud of, and which he identified with considerably.
Emoce a dramaturgie opera buffa
(Emotions and the Dramaturgy of Opera Buffa) / 53
▨ Abstract: In contrary to general interpretations of opera buffa, the presence and importance of arias and ensembles based primarily on emotions (and not only action) are crucial for the genre’s dramaturgy as well as for its historical development. The presence of lyrical arias in opera buffa has its origins in the traditional comic dramaturgy (one or more couples of serious lovers), the number, form and functions of such arias, however, changed considerably during the 18th century. Not only the use of Tuscan Italian, but also adopting new music features of opera seria for lyrical arias of noble lovers (in 30ties) led to the rapid dissemination of the genre. Similarly, broadening of the typology of characters and its emotions in the works of Goldoni and his composers, mostly the including of the sentimental plots and its new kind of heroine, supported the popularity of opera buffa and its transformation to the leading operatic genre in the second half of 18th century.
Veřejná nitra. Emoce a výraz v kolegiu Karla Heinricha Seibta
(The Public Hearts. Emotions and Expression in the Collegium of Karl Heinrich Seibt) / 61
▨ Abstract: This work deals with the changes of rhetorical education and emotional orders in the second half of the 18th century. The aim of the research is to assess the relations among language education, funtions of medias, anthropological models and expression of emotions on the Threshold of enlightenment. The background of the research shapes the transformation of rhetorical tradition. The research of the broad field of pedagogical, rhetorical and moral discurs is focused on the collegium of Karl Heinrich Seibt.
Recenze / 85
Jakub Krček, Rušení klášterů na Plzeňsku (Hedvika Kuchařová)
Milan Myška, Hrabě Hodic a jeho svět (Dušan Uhlíř)
Pavel Suchánek, Triumf obnovujícího se dne (Daniela Tinková)
Lynda Mulvin, The Fusion of Neo-Classical Principles (Taťána Petrasová)
Eliška Bastlová, Collectio operum musicalium quae in bibliotheca Kinsky adservantur (Marc Niubo)
Studie a materiály
Michael Wögerbauer: Welche Grenzen braucht das Buch? Die Regulierung des Buchwesens als Mittel der Selbstkonstruktion der Habsburgermonarchie (1750–1790)
(The Regulation of Print as means of the self-construction of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1750–1790) / 7
▨ Abstract: This article deals with the role of books in the Habsburg monarchy during the reign of Maria Theresa (1740–1780) and Joseph II (1766–1790) as a means of nation‐building. In this sense, we try to show that their ‘book policy’ tended to diminish internal frontiers by aligning the boundaries of the book market with state‐based frontiers, and by regulating and controlling the production and diffusion of information. The article re‐reads and contextualizes their legislation on book culture as a means to culturally, politically and economically unify the Austrian hereditary lands and turn them into a centralized state. The challenge was to bring book culture, hitherto widely controlled by the Catholic Church, under state control, and to provide every single text with a history in order to be able to identify its origin and force book producers to regulate themselves. In addition, state policies put an emphasis on privileging the domestic book market, which had to face strong competition from outside the Habsburg monarchy. This facilitated both the commercial success of the book business, and better control over the ideological content disseminated through literature.
Claire Madl: Vienne capitale de l’édition et du commerce du livre dans la monarchie des Habsbourg ? Le point de vue de la Bohême
(Vienna as a capital city for publishing and bookselling in the Habsburg monarchy? The point of view of Bohemia) /29
▨ Abstract: This paper analyses the role and position of Vienna, capital city of the Habsburg mon- archy, as far as the Prague book market is concerned and compares this position to other important centers providing Bohemia with books (Saxony and South Germany). It so intends to question the ex- istence of the Habsburg monarchy as a cultural ensemble. Several booksellers who settled in Prague during the second half of the 18th century learned their profession in Vienna and many of them re- ferred to Trattner as a model of entrepreneurship. Prague booksellers had nevertheless more regu- larly business relations (thanks to commissioners) with Leipzig than with Vienna. The overwhelming majority of the books they imported were printed in Saxony and northern Germany. Vienna’s weigh as a book provider increased at the very end of the century only. The paper gives a short comparative insight about the situation in Moravia to highlight the peculiarities of Bohemia’s situation within the Habsburg monarchy.
Zdeněk Šimeček: Die Buchhandels‑ und Verlagsbeziehungen zwischen Brünn bzw. Mähren und Wien im 18. Jahrhundert
(The Relations between Brünn's (Brno, Moravia) Booksellers and Vienna in the 18th Century) /63
▨ Abstract: By analysing the links between booksellers in Brünn (Brno) and Vienna, the author assesses the level of integration of Moravia into the kingdom of Bohemia, the Habsburg Monarchy and the German Empire. During the first part of the century relations with Viennese booksellers and publishers were very close. Some Viennese publishers located a part of their activity in Brünn (e.g. Lehmann, Krauss, and later Trattner) in order to reach a new, dynamic, market, both for their own titles and those they dealt in. Most also had links with Olmütz (Olomouc) and Silesia and some set up local publishing programmes. The author then analyses the progressively increasing independence of this regional market in relation to Viennese booksellers and publishers, when some booksellers settled permanently in Brünn.
Ivona Kollárová: Innerkonfessionelle Buchdistribution und Lesen in slowakischen Landgemeinden im josephinischen Zeitalter
(Book distribution and reading in Slovakian rural protestant communities under Joseph II.) /83
▨ Abstract: The paper studies networks built up by Protestant pastors under Joseph II in Upper Hungary, ie. today’s Slovakia, with the aim of publishing, translating, purchasing and disseminating books that did not exclusively belong in the religious domain. The correspondence between pastors shows that the transmission process did not always rely solely on the work of booksellers but also on inter- personal relations. The difficulties and failures of some publishing projects due to their unsuitability for the readership pastors aimed at, give a rare and valuable indication of the (in)abilities and expec- tations of the rural readership in the time of Enlightenment.
Olga Granasztói: Presbourg, Pest, Vienne : réseaux de diffusion de l’imprimé français 1770–1800
(Pressburg, Pest, Vienna. The dissemination network for French books, 1770-1800) / 111
▨ Abstract: The way French books reached their readers in Hungary is one of the major issues for those who study the dissemination of French-language publications in the 18th century. Recent research has demonstrated that Hungarian cities played a key role in providing the domestic book market with foreign books. As a result, Vienna cannot be considered as the only place in the book trade. The article studies the relations between the Pest bookseller Johann Michael Weingand (and his business partner Köpf) and the Société typographique in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), as well as the links between Viennese booksellers and that society. This analysis enables the author to draw a map of the diffusion of French books towards Hungary and the Habsburg Monarchy, and to show that Vienna was not an essential center in the supply of French books to Hungary, as its pre-eminent political and cultural position could lead us to suppose.
Anja Dular: Freemasonic Booksellers / 129
▨ Abstract: The article examines the dissemination of freemasonic books within the Habsburg monarchy during the 18th century. The author focuses on the role of those booksellers who belonged to the Order of Freemasons or supported it, on the kinds of Freemasonic literature they dealt in, and on the way those books circulated in the Habsburg Monarchy. By analyzing booksellers’ catalogues, she is able to reconstruct the relations that were established between authors, publishers and booksellers. Being largely banned, books on Freemasonry enjoyed the popularity of all illicit goods. They were thus sold not only by booksellers who were Freemasons, though we know that a large number of booksell- ers were indeed Freemasons.
Recenze a zprávy (Reviews and news) /149
Irena Štěpánová: Newton – poseldní mág starověku (D. Tinková)
Tomáš Kleisner, Jan Boublík: Mince a medaile císaře Františka Štěpána Lotrinského, Sbírka Národního muzea v Praze (V. Vlnas)
Veronika Čapská, Ellinor Forster, Janine Christina Maegraith and Christine Schneider (eds.): Between Revival and Uncertainty. Monastic and Secular Female Communities in Central Europe in the Long Eighteenth Century (H. Kuchařová)
Studie a materiály
Zdeňka Stoklásková: Suche nach Ordnung. Die Kontrolle von Migration in Österreich zur Zeit der Aufklärung
(Looking for Order. Controlling Migration in Austria at the Age of Enlightenment) /7
▨ Abstract: This study attempts to analyse the basic tendency of the Austrian state to regulate and control the move of inhabitants. After fading of population theories that saw state wealth in the population growth, therefore supporting immigration, the period of the Napoleonic wars came that became catalyser of a rapid legal development in the field of immigration. Entirely unprepared Austria specialised its basic strategies in respect of foreigners and of the population move control. The attitude of the state to foreigners determines their „utility for the state“, which finally results in the establishment of categories of foreigners: privileged, facultative, and undesirable. Applying practical examples, the study specifies such classification of foreigners and of their destinies within the Austrian state. The privileged: The Netherlands textile specialists in the fine cloth factory in Náměšť near Brno; Turkish merchants and subjects of the High Porte of the Jewish religion; the facultative: the Netherlands state officers who, due to their loyalty to Austria, had to leave their homeland after the occupation of the Austrian Netherlands (later Belgium) by the French Republic; the undesirable: The French who were potentially suspected of propagation of revolution ideas or of espionage; here examples of the high French nobility have been specified, i.e. of the de Bombelles family and of dismissed high‐ranking officers of the elite Prince de Condé Regiment (then in active service of Russia).
Magdalena Matzneller: Polizey und Publikation: Joseph von Sonnenfels und Der Mann ohne Vorurtheil
(Policing and Publishing: Joseph von Sonnenfels and his journal Der Mann ohne Vorurtheil) /29
▨ Abstract: The paper focuses on the links between the doctrines taught by Joseph von Sonnenfels at the University of Vienna and his moral weekly Der Mann ohne Vorurtheil. The hypothesis that Son- nenfels uses his publication to divulge his academic findings to a wider public is supported by a com- parison of his academic and literary works, and three of the many aspects are presented. Sonnen- fels writes not only about moral issues but also about the ideal relationship between the state and its citizens, and he uses the moral weekly to express his ideas about the Viennese theatre and the way it should be censored. With regard to censorship there exist some differences between the the- ory defended by Sonnenfels and his personal experience as an author. In fact some pieces of his mor- al weekly got him in trouble and he was forbidden to address certai topics, such as the Church and the situation of the peasants. The most prevalent themae, however, is marriage and gender relations. According to his doctrines high ethical and educational standards as well as a high population keep a state safe from within and that leads Sonnenfels to concentrate on this issue.
Friedrich Wilhelm Schembor: Die Flucht des Königs von Holland nach Teplitz und Graz und seine Überwachung durch die österreichische geheime Polizei
(The Flight of the King of Holland to Teplitz and Graz and his Monitoring by the Austrian Secret Service) /40
▨ Abstract: As an example of the activities of the Austrian secret police under Emperor Francis II (I), we consider the surveillance of Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), king of Holland, when he was in exile in Teplice. The Austrian secret police used several “tools” in the surveillance of persons who were or had aroused suspicion of being criminals or enemies of the state. The ministry of foreign affairs (Hof- und Staatskanzlei), the ministry of the interior (Oberste Polizeihofstelle) and the government of the states (Länder) worked together. The police paid “confidential people” (Vertraute) to observe the habits, activi- ties and friends of the above categories of person. This work was done at the best-known spas by inspec- tion commissioners who tended the patients and collected information. At the mail service letters from suspicious persons were secretly opened and copies were made. It is shown that these methods provid- ed a fairly good picture of the person under surveillance, in our case the king of Holland.
Dmitrij Timofejev: „... čeština ve většině okresů země je stále ještě nezbytná...“ Existoval jazykový program v nařízeních Josefa II. pro země Koruny české?
(“... Czech Is Still Indispensable in Most Districts of the Land...” Did Joseph II’s Decrees for Czech Lands Include a Language Programme?) /63
▨ Abstract: The article deals with the regulation of the use of Czech, German and classical languages in the administrative, school and Church spheres as it appears in the decrees published during Joseph II’s reign for the lands of the Bohemian crown. The author attempts to reconstruct the emperor’s vision of the usage of the different languages in the Czech lands, find the reasoning behind it, and identify the methods of this regulation. He also asks whether, in Joseph II’s case, one can speak about a “language policy” as a deliberate strategy to change the language situation in the Czech lands.
Petr Hasan: Antimonachismus v české osvícenské společnosti. Obsahová analýza tří antimonachistických brožur
(Anti-monachism in the Czech Enlightenment Society Content Analyse of Three Anti-monachial Pamphlets) /83
▨ Abstract: This study deals with reforms by Josef II, in particular with the abolition of the monasteries as recorded in contemporary sources supporting the reforms being carried out. The author selects some significant themes treated by the proponents of reform. The main theme is the criterion of human nature. Related themes include: monks’ asceticism, celibacy, monasteries as the quintessence of baroque piety, and mendicant orders.
Materiály (Documents) /75
Dva příspěvky k otázce etnických menšin za Francouzské revoluce Zrovnoprávnění židovských obyvatel Francie a nebělošského obyvatelstva francouzských kolonií (překlad Klára Jirsová, ediční poznámky Daniela Tinková) / 103
Recenze a zprávy (Reviews and news) / 129
Teodora Shek Brnardić Presentism vs. Historicism: The Enlightenment in Bohemia and the Dilemma of Modern Intellectual History. A Review Essay / 129
Aleš Valenta, Lesk a bída barokní aristokracie (J. Hrbek) / 145
Elisabeth Leube-Payer, Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer 1719–1775: Akademieprofessor und Savoyisch-Liechtensteinischer Hofmaler (M. Yonan) / 153
Kulatý stůl „Zmechanizovaný svět a touha po magičnu. Osvícenství, utilitarismus a mystika“ (J. Hrbek) / 155
Studie a materiály
Kateřina Holanová: Kurze Lebens‐ und Reisebeschreibung. Paměti Christiana Kyrilla Schneidera OFM (1742–1824) z jeho misijní cesty po Egyptě a přilehlých blízkovýchodních oblastech (Kurze Lebens‐ und Reisebeschreibung. Memories of Christian Kyrill Schneider OFM (1742–1824) from His Missionary Journeys through Egypt and Surrounding Middle East Area) /7
▨ Abstract: This article presents Christian Kyrill Schneider OFM, a significant yet not widely known Franciscan missionary who lived in the second half of the 18th century and worked in Egypt and surrounding Middle East Area. His autography that is only available as a manuscript and has never been presented before is fully described here. An excerpt of one chapter offers an insight into a catching ego‐document from the beginning of the 19th century. This study is set in the context of Franciscan missions with an important focus on the activity of brothers from the Czech lands in the Middle East. The introductory chapter summarizes basic bibliography of history of Franciscan missionaries and their writings.
Barbora Matiášová: Knížky lidového čtení jako historický pramen (Chapbooks as Historical Source) /27
▨ Abstract: This paper analyses the so-called Chapbooks that were being written or translated on the dawn of the 19th century. The authors tried to educate the ignorant peasants, the targeted readers, through their fetching stories. The work shows facts and deeds that were presented as “right” and “wise”. First of all it presents the factual public enlightenment, more specifically the altering appreciation of time. Next, there is an analysis of the way the authors were maintaining the cogency of their work; the paper discusses whether the narrative style of writing is compatible with the didactic intention, and the characteristics of the “rational order of explanation”.
Dušan Uhlíř: Počátky Moravského zemského muzea a případ hraběte Josefa Auersperga
(The Beginnings of Moravské zemské muzeum and the Case of Count Joseph Auersperg) /47
▨ Abstract: Count Joseph of Auersperg (1767–1829) was a lawyer, the president of the Bohemian Land Court and a member of the Prague Masonic lodge “At the Truth and Unity at the three Crowned Pillars” (Zur Wahrheit und Einigkeit zu den drei gekrönten Säulen). After the so called Jacobin trials (1794–1795) the Masonry was forbidden in the Habsburg monarchy and the Masonic lodges stopped their activities in order to avoid the state persecution. Despite the official proscription of Masonic lodges count Auersperg attempted to renew this lodge. Auersperg made use of the atmosphere of the illusive political thaw after the defeat of the Austrian army in 1809. He managed to succeed in his efforts until 1812 when the Austrian police traced this activity on the grounds of opening and controlling his correspondence. The count was then punished by transfer to Brno to serve there as the president of the Appellate Court in Moravia. In Brno he entered the environment influenced by local masons who after the dissolution of their lodge channelled their activities to philanthropy, culture and organization of science. They initiated a plan to found the Moravian museum in Brno after the example of Joanneum in Graz in Styria. In the person of Auersperg these men found an ardent supporter of this idea. Auersperg participated in presenting the programme of the new museum to the Moravian‐Silesian Gubernium. The plan was approved by the authorities and Auersperg thus became one of the founders of this prominent institution. The harassment he suffered from the police regime and his overall case are illustrative of the methods used by the Austrian state against its real as well as supposed opponents. In his private correspondence with friends Auersperg made critical remarks about the situation at the Land Court in Prague, which was also revealed by the police and reported to the emperor. Moreover, the contacts Auersperg kept with people who were labelled as the enemies of the state were viewed very unfavourably. These circumstances finally led Auersperg to leave the state service after his transfer to Brno. The permanent legacy of Auerspergs activities in Brno is his masonic library which originally consisted of 267 volumes and is now housed by the Moravian Library.
Oldřiška Prokopová: Osvícenství a diplomacie přelomu 18. a 19. století na příkladu kariéry toskánského šlechtice Luigiho Angioliniho (Enlightenment and Diplomacy at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century Based on the Example of Tuscan Nobleman Luigi Angiolini) /57
▨ Abstract: The study examines the life of a Tuscan nobleman Luigi Angiolini. He was a writer, traveller and diplomat. He was active in the period of the Habsburg reforms, the French Revolution, Napoleonic rule and the restoration in Italy. His travelogue about England and Scotland (Lettere sopra l’Inghilterra, Scozia e Olanda) reflects his education and background which was strongly influenced by Tuscan Enlightenment. During the subsequent Napoleonic rule in Italy, he turned his attention to diplomacy in the services of Napoleon Bonaparte and grand duke Ferdinand III in Paris. The article shows how Angiolini was marked by ideas and trends of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century during his chequered life and how the breakthrough period formed him.
Recenze a anotace (Reviews) /75
Jana Perutková, František Antonín Míča ve službách hraběte Questenberga a italská opera v Jaroměřicích, Praha: KLP 2011, 619 s. (Jana Spáčilová)
Daniela Tinková, Jakobíni v sutaně. Neklidní kněží, strach z revoluce a konec osvícenství na Moravě, Praha: Argo 2011, 359 s. (Claire Madl)
Zprávy (Newsletter) / 84
Problematika 18. století na 31. mezinárodní konferenci Archivu hlavního města Prahy (Hedvika Kuchařová)
Braniborský rok Fridricha Velikého (Dušan Uhlíř)
Studie a materiály
Daniela Štěrbová: Červené Poříčí – štuková výzdoba zámecké kaple, její ikonografie a objednavatelé (The Emblematic Stucco Decoration of the Palace Chapel in Červené Poříčí – Iconography and Patron’s role) /7
▨ Abstract: This study introduces an emblematic scheme within the stucco decoration of the Palace Chapel in Červené Poříčí. The given emblematic sheme glorifies the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus. It was inspired by the emblem book of the Bavarian theologian Anton Ginther, which was published in 1706. The article tries to place the programme of the decoration into the context of Middle European evolution of the devotion to the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus – a cult that was very popular at the time. Finally, the article places the decorative scheme into political and historical context and discusses the role its patron played in determining the decoration’s commission and execution.
Tomáš Hlobil: Neznámý zápis z Meißnerových přednášek z estetiky a rétoriky (Pokus o dataci a charakteristiku vídeňského rukopisu) –
Unknown Notes of Meißner’s Lectures in Aesthetics and Rhetoric: An Attempt to Date and Describe a Vienna Manuscript /19
▨ Abstract: This essay aims to describe hitherto unknown notes of aesthetics lectures given by August Gottlieb Meißner (1753–1807) at Prague University. It compares these notes (made by a certain Wagner, and deposited in the Wienbibliothek im Rathaus) with notes deposited in Czech libraries, and seeks to determine their place chronologically amongst notes made by others attending Meißner’s lectures over the years. The most important difference in content between the earlier known notes and Wagner’s is Meißner’s negative attitude towards the Schlegel brothers. This attitude slightly alters our existing notion of his views on the relationship between literature and morality. Taken alone, the collections of notes in Czech libraries had led one to conclude that this Prague ordinarius was an ardent libertine, who dared, even at a conservative Austrian university, to push for the autonomy of art, including a thorough split between art and morality, regarding not only works of art, but also, to a certain extent, the artists themselves. By contrast, the Vienna MS as a matter of priority restricts this split to art, and limits it to the higher, moral aims of the artist as citizen. His approach to questions of morality and to the Schlegel brothers demonstrates that while Meißner considered himself part of the liberally enlightened current of contemporaneous literature, which made moving the emotions the central aim of art, he was no longer an adherent of up‐and‐coming Romanticism with its extreme conviction about unlimited authorial liberty, which stemmed from the philosophical Idealism of the times. This attitude to the Schlegel brothers also suggests that Wagner attended Meißner’s lectures in aesthetics and rhetoric in the winter of 1800/1.
Alena Jakubcová: Principál Václav Mihule na dvoře vévodském (Entrepreneur Václav Mihule at the Ducal Residence) /29
▨ Abstract: Theatrical activities of Václav Mihule (1758 – after 1808) are documented at his various positions in 19 European cities. Born in Prague Mihule left his home at a young age. His earliest experience was as an actor (1781–89), traveling to distant places such as Warszawa (1781), St. Peterburg (1784–86), Königsberg (1787–88), Mainz and Frankfurt a. M. (1788–89). His first Prague ensemble (1789) was a collaboration with Jean Butteau, the company played at Thun‐Palace Theatre at the Lesser Town of Prague. Later he directed the ensemble Vlastenské divadlo (Patriotic Theatre) in the Theatre U Hybernů (in summer in Karlovy Vary) and the German company at the Nostitz Theatre. After his abrupt departure from Prague in mid 1793 he became a theatre director in Augsburg (1793–94), in Nürnberg, Ansbach, Erlangen, Ulm and Nördlingen (1794–97), Stuttgart (1797), Wiener Neustadt (1797/98), Olomouc (1800–02), Opava (1802–04), Prešov (1805) a Košice (1804–08). He seems to have ended his career in Košice, where he may have died.
In the time from 21. 12. 1796 till 13. 9. 1797 he led on lease the Court Theatre Company of Friedrich Eugen II. of Württemberg in Stuttgart. It was in Stuttgart for the first time, when the Court Theatre was rented to a theatre entrepreneur. The Duke tryed in this way to keep the theatre running in the bad economic situation in the course of the War of the First Coalition (1792–1797). For the director Mihule was the offered contract for 6 years – after experience with various theaters in the cities – an extraordinary occasion to achieve a firmly established place of work with above standard conditions. It is possible to describe and characterize the Stuttgart period of the entrepreneur Mihule on the basis of archive documents and account books (aspect of organization) and periodicals (theatre repertory). Some features of the abilities of actors and some reflections of the state of the Court Theatre in Stuttgart bring diary notes by J. W. Goethe.
Magdaléna Jacková: Mezi duchovním a světským. Jezuitské školské drama v Praze kolem poloviny 18. století (Between Secular and Spiritual. Jesuit School Drama in Prague about 1750) /49
▨ Abstract: During the first half of the 18th century, the Jesuit drama was changing in the German lands. This process can be characterized as an origin of the Jesuit secular drama – new themes appeared, while the old ones were disappearing. This paper deals with a question, if we can observe the same tendencies in the Jesuit drama written in the Bohemian province in the same period, too.
Marc Niubo: Italská opera mezi Prahou a Drážďanami v druhé polovině 18. století (The Italian Opera between Prague and Dresden in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century) /65
▨ Abstract: Despite the state borders, and the different socio‐economical and cultural contexts, productions of Italian opera in Prague and Dresden become considerably interconnected due the activity of the impresario Giuseppe Bustelli. During his directorship (1764–1777 in Prague, 1765–1777 in Dresden) and even in the next decade, more than 50% of the repertoire was shared. Furthermore, some of the artists performed in both cities, and the same or similar adaptations of operas were used. The main difference in repertoire consisted in opera seria productions in Prague until 1777, whereas in Dresden only opera buffa was staged since 1765. Analyses of selected works reveal some of both similar and different performing strategies and their aesthetical, practical as well as political connections.
Irena Veselá: Maurus Joseph Haberhauer a Pavel Josef Marek. Řádoví skladatelé druhé poloviny 18. století (Maurus Joseph Haberhauer and Pavel Josef Marek Composers of the Religious Order in the Second Half of 18th Century) /81
▨ Abstract: The second half of the 18th century marked an extraordinary flowering of music, especially church music in the Czech lands. Monastic churches, in particular, were characterised by a high level of music production performed by choral scholars whose liturgical music was conducted by chosen monks. Some members of religious orders also composed. These were for example M. J. Haberhauer (1746–1799), a member of the Benedictine order situated in Rajhrad near Brno and P. J. Marek (1748–1806) who belonged to the Augustinian monastery in Brno. Both of them got a musical education as choral scholars and remained musically active also after entering orders. Eventually these two authors both performed as chorregents in the 70’s and early 80’s of the 18th century and they collected sacred and secular pieces of music of their more famous and popular contemporaries (C. Ditters, F. X. Brixi, Haydn, etc.). Apart from a few exceptions they were only composing liturgical works. Haberhauer bequeathed 90 compositions, most of whom composed of Mass for choir and solo accompanied with instrumental ensemble as well as vespers and motets. Marek, however, composed only 21 church compositions and most of them consist of Marian antiphons and litanies of Loreto. These were necessary at the Augustinians, given the honor rendered to the picture of Virgin Mary placed in their church. The two monasteries ran a mutual cooperation which can be proved by Haberhauer music collection preserved at Augustinians in Brno. Haberhauer work can be also found in the collections of other Moravian churches and also at Prague Benedictine order. While Marek’s compositions were exclusively connected to the Augustinian monastery in Brno. Their pieces of music are purely purposeful showing features of a musical classicism. Lives and works of both composers are now the subject of research of the author and of Pavel Žůrek from the Institute of Musicology, Masaryk University in Brno and it will result in more extensive studies.
Recenze a anotace (Reviews) / 97
Magdaléna Jacková, Divadlo jako škola zbožnosti a ctnosti. Jezuitské školní drama v Praze v první polovině 18. století, Praha: Trivium 2011, 286 s.; Petr Polehla: Jezuitské divadlo ve službě zbožnosti a vzdělanosti, Červený Kostelec: Pavel Mervart 2011, 163 s. (Petr Osolsobě)
Tomáš Hlobil: Výuka dobrého vkusu jako státní zájem – Počátky pražské univerzitní estetiky ve středoevropských souvislostech 1763–1805, Praha: Togga 2011 (Alena A. Fialová)
Adam Votruba, Pravda u zbojníka. Zbojnictví a loupežnictví ve střední Evropě, Praha: Scriptorium 2010, 499 s. (Daniela Tinková)
Zprávy (Newsletter) / 109
Neučiníš sobě rytiny – evangelické umění toleranční doby 1781–1861. Muzeum Vysočiny Jihlava, 6. října–27. listopadu 2011 (Sixtus Bolom‐Kotari)
„Občanská společnost na papíře“ aneb „Konstruování, kodifikace a realizace konceptu občanské společnosti v habsburské monarchii“ (Milan Hlavačka a Daniela Tinková)
Zbojníci – hrdinové, nebo zločinci (Daniela Tinková)
Studie a materiály
Josef Fulka: Dítě z lesa jako filosofický problém: několik poznámek k filosofickému pozadí Itardovy Zprávy o Victorovi z Aveyronu (A Child from the Forest as a Philosophical Problem: Some Remarks on the Philosophical Background of Itard’s Report on Victor of Aveyron) / 7
▨ Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to examine certain philosophical issues which have set the tone of the philosophical reflection in eighteenth century France in relation to a specific case study: that of the „wild child“ known as Victor of Aveyron. Found in 1800 in central France, Victor was later transferred to the Parisian Institute of the Deaf‐Mutes, where he became the object of educational activities of Jean‐Marc Itard, a medical expert known for his works on the problem of hearing loss. Through a brief critical examination of the most notorious philosophical texts dealing both with the question of wild children and deafness (namely by Rousseau, Diderot and Condillac), we attempt to show that the specificity of Itard’s educational method consists in an application of the sensualist approach towards the human individual (as it is exemplified especially in the work of Condillac) on a concrete human subject, considered as a tangible proof of the inexistence of innate ideas. On this basis, we sketch several broader questions concerning the status of anomaly in the eighteenth century philosophical thought (namely, wild children and deafness), as well as some hypotheses on education and its fantasmatic aspects in general.
Etienne Balibar: Láskyplnost v Rousseauově Nové Héloise (Lovence in Rousseau’s Julie) / 23
▨ Abstract: The aim of the present study is to trace an interpretation of Rousseau’s novel Julie ou la Nouvelle Heloise on the basis of the difference between love and friendship. Starting with a brief reminder of Paul de Man’s interpretation of this novel in Allegories of Reading, the author turns to Jacques Derrida and borrows a key neologism from his book The Politics of Friendship: aimance or lovence, an affective modality which blurs and transcends the duality of love and friendship. On this basis, the author presents a few remarks concerning the literary form of the novel, the configuration of its characters and finally the place of Rousseau’s Julie in the context of his other works. Rather than being an isolated literary work, Julie seems to be an attempt to answer certain questions concerning the relation between individual and society from a different angle than that chosen in The Social Contract.
Michal Kneblík: Školní fase – prameny pro dějiny výchovy a vzdělávání v 18. století (School Reports as Sources for the History of Education and Schoolingin the Eighteenth Century) / 39
▨ Abstract: The article deals with school reports on gains and properties of schools and their masters (the so called “fassiones” in Latin). It focuses on the part of archive of Bohemian Gubernium containing school reports from 1775 to 1792. Previous Czech historians as Josef Hanzal or Jan Šafránek examined these reports especially with the use of quantitative methods, but the goal of this study is to show that more points of view are possible and available. More details about the problems of schools and teachers, content of school instruction, and employed books and tables could also be found in this kind of source.
Zdeněk Duda: „Vás o, svatí patronové, pobožně vzýváme“ aneb poslední epidemie moru z let 1713–1714 v myšlení a jednání obyvatel města Písku (“You, oh Holy Patrons, We Piously Invoke” or else the Last Black Death Plague of 1713–1714 in the Thought and Conduct of the Inhabitants of Písek) / 51
▨ Abstract: The Black Death plague constituted a major disruption of the ordinary pace of life of the society in early modern period. As such it attracted interest and drew attention. The Black Death menace caused panic and fear, and therefore various measures and actions which were supposed to prevent the outbreak of the plague or at least considerably limit its consequences were defined and carried out. Such practices were shaped by contemporary ideologies and mentalities and reflected everyday experience. The study of various means of dealing with the Black Death menace may be like looking in a mirror in which the curves of the quotidian lifestyle of the period are reflected. The present paper which analyses the last Black Death plague of 1713–1714 in the environment of a south‐Bohemian town offers one such view. The mechanisms which the inhabitants of the regional capital Písek formulated and applied in the attempt to confront the iimpending Black Death menace, are specifically examined. The bearing of these mechanisms on contemporary devoutness is also problematized at the level of so‐called semi‐folk discourse.
Recenze a anotace (Reviews) / 65
Charles‐Louis de Montesquieu, O duchu zákonů I, Praha: OIKOYMENH 2010, přel. Hana Fořtová, 378 s. (Josef Fulka)
Gabriela Sobková z Kornic, provdaná ze Spens‐Booden. Deníkové rodinné záznamy (1785–1808). Edd. Veronika Čapská – Veronika Marková, Praha: Scriptorium (edice Manu propria) 2009, 239 s., il. (Hedvika Kuchařová)
Petr Mašek, Šlechtické rody v Čechách, na Moravě a ve Slezsku od Bílé hory do současnosti, Díl I A–M, Praha: Argo 2008, 668 s. (Jiří Kubeš)
Rudolf Svoboda, Jan Prokop Schaaffgotsche, první biskup českobudějovický, Brno: L. Marek (Pontes Pragenses 54) 2009, 319 s. (Pavla Stuchlá)
Martin Javor, Slobodomurárske hnutie v českých krajinách a v Uhorsku v 18. storočí, Prešov: Vydavatel’stvo Prešovskej univerzity 2009, a Slobodomurárske hnutie v Košiciach do roku 1918, Bratislava: Filozofická fakulta Prešovskej univerzity (Acta facultatis philosophicae universitatis Prešoviensis) 2009 (Dušak Uhlíř)
Ingrid Kušniráková, Piae fundationes. Zbožné fundácie a ich význam pre rozvoj uhorskej spoločnosti v ranom novoveku, Bratislava: Pro historia 2009, 214 s. (Eva Kowalská)
Eva Kowalská – Karol Kantek, Uhorská rapsódia alebo tragický príbeh osvietenca Jozeva Hajnóczyho, Bratislava: Veda, vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied 2008, 255 s., včetně barevné obrazové přílohy (Daniela Tinková)
Jozef Tancer, Im Schatten Wiens. Zur deutschsprachigen Presse und Literatur im Pressburg des 18. Jahrhunderts, Bremen: Ed. Lumière, 2008 (Michael Wögerbauer)
Zprávy (Newsletter) / 83
Zpráva o 13. kongresu Mezinárodní společnosti pro výzkum 18. století (ISECS/SIEDS) ve Štýrském Hradci (Veronika Čapská – Claire Madl – Zdeňka Stoklásková – Daniela Tinková)
Zpráva o workshopu Francouzská revoluce a veřejné mínění v českých zemích: „recepce“, „transfery“, „dopady“ a (anti)propaganda (Redakce)
Rudolf Svoboda : Osvícenství, teologie a církevní historie - Enlightenment, Theology and Church History
▨ Abstract: This study aims to present the problems of the perspective of Catholic theology and Catholic historiography on the Enlightenment. In its first part it attempts to find an answer to the question: is the Church History rather theological or historical discipline? Then it shows some specifics of the Catholic perspective in the Church History discipline before and after the 2nd Vatican Council. In its second part it shows reflection of the problems of Enlightenment in the Catholic theology. In the next part this study dwells on discussion about understanding of Enlightenment in history since 1908 till now. In its last part shows reflection of theological and historical research in the Bohemian area before and after the 2nd Vatican Council.
Ivo Cerman : Evropské osvícenství Jonathana Israele - Jonathan Israel’s European Enlightenment
▨ Abstract: The article lays out Jonathan Israel’s central ideas on the European Enlightenment, as they have been developed in his Radical Enlightenment (2001), Enlightenment Contested (2006) and A Revolution of the Mind (2009). I explain his ‘controversialist method’ of intellectual history and point out the advantages and faults of this approach. Israel’s model of the heterogeneous Enlightenment is shown as a response to A. MacIntyre’s post‐modern criticism, and to the older models of a ‘single Enlightenment’, as presented by P. Gay, or older models of multiple enlightenments, as presented by J. G. Pocock. However, Israel’s heterogeneous Enlightenment recognizes just one progenitor of the positive ‘modern values’, which is identified with the Radical wing. The article reviews Israel’ s narrative of the development and spread of the Radical Enlightenment in Europe and the struggles with the Enlightenment mainstream and within the Enlightenment mainstream. However, I also show some faults in Israel’s argument, mainly his view of the ‘secular morality’, which should have been the outcome of the Radical Enlightenment’s campaign. In conclusion, I point at the inconsistency of Israel’s reconstruction of the Enlightenment morals and the differences between his view and J. Schneewind’s interpretation.
Helga Meise : Von der „unsichtbaren“ zur „sichtbaren“ Geschichte. Zur Prager Herkunft der Schriftstellerin Maria Anna Sager, geb. Roßkoschny (1719–1805) - Hidden Biography: The Prague Origins of Maria Anna Sager (1719–1805)
▨ Abstract: The contribution explores the Prague origines of the first Prague and Austrian female author of the Enlightenment, Maria Anna Sager, born Rosskoschny (1719–1805). The reconstruction of the carreer of her father Anton Ferdinand Rosskoschny (1679–1734) at the Böhmische Statthalterei – he ended as “Registrator” and “Expeditor” – proves his social ambitions. On the other hand ego‐documents of him conserved in the National Archives at Prague reveal the sorrows and the “stress” of the well‐established fonctioner, not only his fear in front of the people, but also for his reputation, his family and his soul.
Veronika Čapská : A Publishing Project of Her Own − Anna Katharina Sweerts-Sporck as a Patroness of the Servite Order and a Promoter of Devotional Literature
▨ Abstract: The scholarly attention paid to Anna Katharina Sweerts‐Sporck has so far focused on the phase of her youth when she was engaged in translating books chosen by her father count Franz Anton Sporck for publishing. The article explores her interest in the book culture in the later stage of her life after her forced entrance into marriage in 1712. Anna Katharina initiated a large program of publishing and spreading devotional literature. The project was realized in cooperation with the Servite friar Wilhelm M. Löhrer and it aimed to cultivate internal, affective piety as a newly appraised type of religiosity which was increasingly popular across the confessional boundaries in the eighteenth century.
Daniela Tinková : Názory venkovského faráře aneb „Velká evropská revoluce ještě není završena“ . „Correspondance littéraire“ Jana Ferdinanda Opize s Karlem Killarem.
▨ Abstract: The study is based on an analysis of content and themes of the correspondence of the well‐known Enlightenment Era “provincial intellectual”, a bank clerk from Čáslav Jan Ferdinand Opiz (1741–1812), with a country priest from the highlands on the border of Bohemia and Moravia, Karel Killar (1745–1806). Their correspondence – in most part hitherto unstudied – is deposited in the National Museum in Prague. It consists of more than 300 letters, written over a long period of 16 years (1793–1806), and it is fascinating for several reasons: it is conducted in French, which represents one of the very rare testimonies of a good knowledge of French in some members of other classes than the nobility in the 18th and 19th centuries; in this case, the use of French can be read as an implicit adherence to (French) Enlightenment, and perhaps even to the principles of the French Revolution. And it is the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars around which the entire correspondence revolves. Thanks to this we may not only form a deeper and more nuanced insight into Opitz, a well‐known sympathizer of the French Revolution, but also into the lesser known figure of Killar, a man of universal education and an Enlightenment era priest of Josephine stamp, who tried to integrate both the Enlightenment and the French Revolution within his firm Christian (Catholic) worldview.
Rozhovor s Rogerem Chartierem (připravili C. Mádl, M. Wögerbauer, M. Ondo Grečenková, překlad J. Fulka a M. Grečenková)
Recenze a anotace
Catherine Cusset, No Tomorrow. The Ethics of Pleasure in the French Enlightenment (Josef Fulka)
Mogens Lærke (ed.), The Use of Censorship in the Enlightenment
Jaroslav Lorman – Daniela Tinková (eds.), Post tenebras spero lucem.
Duchovní tvář českého a moravského osvícenství (Martina Halířová) / Jiří Malíř et al., Člověk na Moravě ve druhé polovině 18. století (Claire Madl)
Zdeňka Stoklásková, Cizincem na Moravě. Zákonodárství a praxe pro cizince na Moravě (Daniela Tinková)
Tzvetan Todorov, L’Esprit des Lumières (Tomáš Dufka)
Lesley H. Walker, A Mother’s Love. Crafting Feminine Virtue in Enlightenment France (Veronika Čapská)
Dny České divadelní encyklopedie (Jan Malura)
„Habsburgermonarchie, Russland, Osmanisches Reich, Amerika“. Workshop konaný ve Vídni ve dnech 1.–4. 10. 2009 (Jiří Hrbek)